Signing the Treaty

Maori taonga

The Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty for immigrants

The Treaty 2U


A good background history. There is also a running list of the laws that have breached the Treay.
The Picture, Parliament, Government, Law
2004 protests and violence on Waitangi Day
Short and brief description of why we celebrate Waitangi Day
English and Maori version
Television film of Bastion Point eviction
Great, simple site.
Short and sweet information.
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The Māori people trace their origins to eastern Polynesia, where their ancestors set off in canoes and travelled many thousands of kilometres acros...
Māori arrival and settlement; Europeans to 1840; British Sovereignty and settlement; War, expansion and depression; Liberal to Labour; The 20th Cen...

Treaty explained and historiography.doc
This is useful but done by a colleague

This is Mr Pipe's analysis of the Treaty. The mnemonic CCVOTES is a way that you can remember the key features of the Treaty.

This is available as a PPT show here:

Treaty Of Waitangi Questions

  1. Why was the decision by both Maori and the British Crown to sign the Treaty of Waitangi a significant one?
  2. In what way did the establishment of a ‘workable accord’ pave the way for the signing of the Treaty?
  3. In what way did the fact that Maori acculturated European ways pave the way for the signing of the Treaty?
  4. What ‘legal’ impediment [obstruction] was there to Britain simply taking over in New Zealand?
  5. Describe briefly what the three articles of the Treaty are about.You will need to do this twice.
  6. What Maori word was used to translate the English word ‘sovereignty’? What did Maori chiefs understand the word to mean in terms of their relationship with the Crown?
  7. What Maori word is probably the most accurate translation of the English word ‘sovereignty’?
  8. For what reason is it likely that the missionary Henry Williams mistranslated ‘sovereignty’?

‘Factors’ behind the ‘Decision’ to sign the Treaty
  1. What mnemonic explains why Britain agreed to sign the Treaty of Waitangi?
  2. What mnemonic explains why some Maori chiefs agreed to sign the Treaty of Waitangi?
  3. In broad terms, what are the TWO main categories into which Maori reasons for signing the Treaty can be grouped?
  4. What does Adams put forward as a significant reason for the Maori decision to sign the Treaty?
  5. What point does Salmond make about the Maori desire to continue interaction with Europeans?
  6. For what reason does Edward Gibbon Wakefield say that the two Wellington-region chiefs Turoa and Te Aratia signed the Treaty?
  7. How did Maori understand the explanations given by Busby and the missionaries that the Treaty was a ‘covenant’?
  8. What aspect of Article 2 of the Treaty convinced many Maori that signing the Treaty would be ‘safe’?
  9. How did the Rarawa chief Nopera Panakareao describe his understanding of what the Treaty meant?
  10. Which historian identifies inter-hapu rivalry and the fear of ‘missing out on the Crown’ as a factor for some chiefs in terms of signing the Treaty?
  11. What issue with respect to the enhancing of Maori chiefs’ mana made a relationship with Britain especially appealing?
  12. What point does Tremewen make about the concerns of some chiefs with regard to the French?
  13. In terms of reasons for signing the Treaty, how did missionaries and Busby apply pressure to Britain in regard in regard to the situation in NZ?
  14. Give TWO ways in which the despatch of the NZ Company ship the Tory exerted pressure on Britain to sign the Treaty quickly.
  15. What actual evidence was there of possible French intentions to annex parts of NZ?
  16. In what way does Belich say that concerns such as the timber-milling and ship-building yards at Horeke in the Hokianga added to the pressure on Britain to sign the Treaty?
  17. In what way did Britain’s view of its place in the world affect its decision to sign the Treaty?
  18. What significant successful campaign prior to the signing of the Treaty demonstrated the strength of the humanitarian movement in Britain, and thus its influence in convincing the Crown to deal fairly with Maori?

‘Consequences’ of the ‘Decision’ to sign the Treaty
  1. “After the signing of the Treaty, Britain only had nominal sovereignty”. Explain what this means.
  2. If the contact period can be described as a time when a ‘workable accord’ was established, what term can be used to describe the post-Treaty period?
  3. In the period after the Treaty, in what FIVE areas were Maori still dominant?
  4. Over what TWO key issues did Maori-Crown relations focus in the post-Treaty period?
  5. What TWO LAND issues did the Governor assert his authority over that dismayed and angered Maori?
  6. After pre-1840 land purchases were investigated, what happened to land that was declared by the investigator to be ‘surplus’?
  7. How did Governor Hobson interpret the term ‘pre-emption’?
  8. For what practical reason were Maori angered by Hobson’s interpretation of ‘pre-emption’.
  9. Give TWO laws passed by the Governor that affected Northland Maori.
  10. Give one situation in the early 1840s where British law was applied to Maori, resulting in an execution.
  11. Give one example of settlers in Wellington attempting to assert what they believed was their government’s sovereignty over Maori.
  12. What was Governor Fitzroy’s reaction to the Wairau ‘Affray’?
  13. What had made Hone Heke so discontented with the Treaty that he chopped down the flagpole?
  14. How does Ranginui Walker describe Governor Grey and his impact on race relations?
  15. Approximately how many acres of land did Grey purchase during his tenure as Governor (1845-55)?
  16. Give THREE broad issues, areas or ways in which the Governors attempted to assert the Crown’s authority.
  17. Explain the political reason behind the Kingitanga’s alarm about the continuing loss of land.
  18. In what way did settlers assert what they believed was their right to power in New Zealand?
  19. Give two reasons why Governor Gore-Browne called the Kohimarama Conference.
  20. What was significant about both the Kingitanga and the Kohimarama Conference in terms of the way that Maori were asserting their sovereignty, as opposed to how Maori society normally functioned?
  21. Apart from preserving land from sale, what other main function did the Kingitanga set itself to perform?
  22. How did Wiremu Tamihana represent his view of the Kingitanga when Grey’s Chief Land Purchasing Agent (Donald McLean) suggested that the Kingitanga was illegal?
  23. Why is the Kohimarama Covenant seen as a more significant commitment by Maori to the Treaty (even if it was the Maori version of it) than the actual signings that took place in 1840?
What promise by Governor Gore Browne at Kohimarama (but not fulfilled) made the chiefs believe that their mana had finally be

In class I will present this as a lecture which you can take down as best you can. If you miss bits, leave gaps in your notes which can be plugged by accessing the PPT show above.

Podcast on the Treat

Go to this link for the people to look up:

Alternatively see what you can find to answer the questions from this list:
The document below might be helpful as well
As can be seen from the speeches and comments from the chiefs after Governor Hobson had read them the final draft and the Treaty O Waitangi on the 5th February 1840, most of them understood the Treaty. While the chiefs who were in close contact with Pompallier, the French Catholic Bishop were against the Treaty for obvious reasons, the chiefs who in most cases had become Christians under the missionaries were in favour of it. They realized it was now too late to turn the Governor away and must accept British law and order if they were to survive. They also realized for this to happen, they must cede their Sovereignty to Britain for New Zealand to become British soil under, one flag one law.

The following points are very obvious from the chief’s speeches and comments.
  • They were afraid they would become slaves
  • They were afraid the Governor would steal their land
  • They knew it was too late to turn the foreigners away
  • They wanted protection of their lands, dwellings and property.
  • They wanted equal rights, the same as all the people of New Zealand
  • They wanted Hobson to be their protector, their father, their Governor.
(The writer has underlined these points in the following speeches)
(Taken from, “The Treaty of Waitangi” by T. Lindsay Buick)
TE KEMARA (Page 126)
The first speaker was Te Kemara, chief of the Ngati Kawa tribe. “Health to thee, O Governor. This is mine to thee, O Governor. I am not pleased towards thee. I will not consent to thy remaining here in this country. If thou stayest as Governor, then perhaps Te Kemara will be judged and condemned. Yes, indeed, and more than that – even hung by the neck. No, no, no, I shall never say yes to your staying. Were we to be an equality, then perhaps Te Kemara would say yes. But for the Governor to be up and Te Kemara down – Governor high up, up ,up, and Te Kemara down low, small, a worm, a crawler. No, no, no, O Governor! This is mine to thee. O Governor, my land is gone, gone, all gone. The inheritances of my ancestors, fathers, relatives, all gone, stolen, gone with the missionaries. Yes, they have it all, all, all. That man there, the Busby, the Williams, they have my land. The land on which we are now standing this day is mine. This land, even this under my feet, return this to me. O Governor, return me my lands, Say to Williams, ‘Return to Te Kemara his land’. ‘Thou, thou ,thou , thou baldheaded man, thou hast got my lands. O Governor, I do not wish thou to stay. You English are not kind to us like other foreigners. You do not give us good things. I say, go back, go back Governor; we do not want thee here in this country. And Te Kemara says to thee, go back, leave to Busby and to Williams to arrange and to settle matters for us natives as heretofore”.
Te Kemara later admitted the French Bishop Pompallier had told him, “Not to write on the paper, for if he did, he would be made a slave”. Te Kemara had already sold most of his land.
REWA (Page 128)
The next speaker was Rewa, chief of the Ngati Tawake tribe, “How d’ye do, Mr. Governor. This is mine to thee, O Governor. Go back; let the Governor return to his own country. Let my lands be returned to me, which have been taken by the missionaries – by Davis and Clarke and by who and who beside. I have no lands now - only my name, only a name. Foreigners come, they know Mr. Rewa, but this is all I have left – a name. What do native men want of a Governor? We are not white or foreigners. This country is ours, but the land is gone. Nevertheless, we are the Governor – we the chiefs of this our father’s land. I will not say ‘Yes’ to the Governor remaining. No, no, no, return. What! This land to become like Port Jackson, and all other lands seen by the English. No, no, no, return. I, Rewa say to thee, O Governor go back. Send the man away. Do not sign the paper. If you do you will be reduced to the condition of slaves, and be compelled to break stones on the roads. Your land will be taken from you and your dignity as chief will be destroyed”.
MOKA (Page 128)
The next speaker was Moka, chief of the Patukeha tribe, “Let the Governor return to his own country, Let us remain where we are. Let my lands be returned to me – all of them – those that are gone with Baker. Do not say ‘the lands will be returned to you’. Who will listen to thee, O Governor? Who will obey thee? Where is Clendon? Where is Mair? Gone to buy, buy our land, notwithstanding the book (Proclamation) of the Governor”. Hobson interrupted the speaker saying any lands illegally taken would be returned. “That is good, O Governor! That is straight. But stay, let me see. Yes, yes indeed! Where is Baker? Where is the fellow, Ah, there he is – there standing. Come, return to me my lands”.
To this Mr. Baker replied, “We shall see whether they will return”. Moka continued, “There, there, that is as I said. No, no, no, all false, all false, alike. The lands will not be returned to me”
Next to speak was Tamati Pukututu, chief of the Te Uri-o-te-hawato tribe. “This is mine to thee, O Governor, Stay, Governor, stay. A Governor for us – for me, for all, that our lands may remain with us – that these piritoke and piriwa-awa, these homeless wanders who sneak about, sticking to rocks, and to the side of brooks, and gullies may not have it all. Remain O Governor; remain for me, for us. Remain here as father for us. These chiefs say ‘Don’t stay’ because they have sold all their possessions and they are filled with foreign property, and they have also no more to sell. But I say, what of that? Remain, Governor, remain. You two stay here, you and Busby – you two, and they also, the missionaries”.
MATIU (Page 133)
Next to speak was Matiu, chief of the Uri-o-ngongo tribe, “O Governor! Stay, stay, remain, you as one with the missionaries, a Governor for us. Do not go back, but stay here, a Governor, a father for us, that good may increase, may become large to us. This is my word to thee. Do thou remain here, a father for us”.
KAWITI ( Page 133)
No, no, go back, go back”, cried Kawiti of the Ngati Hine tribe. “What dost thou want here? We native men do not wish you to stay. We do not want to be tied up and trodden down. We are free. Let the missionaries remain, but as for thee, return to thine own country. I will not say yes to thine sitting here, What, to be fired at in our boats and canoes at night! What, to be fired at when quickly paddling our canoes by night! I, even I, Kawaiti, must not paddle this way or that way because the Governor said No, because of the Governor, his soldiers and his guns. No, no, no, go back, go back, there is no place here for a Governor”.
WAI (Page 134)
A chief of the Ngati Awake tribe, Wai, now spoke, “To thee, O Governor! This. Will you remedy the selling, the exchanging, the cheating, the lying, the stealing of the whites? O Governor! Yesterday I was cursed by a white man. It that straight? The white man gives us natives a pound for a pig, but he gives the Pakeha four pounds for such a pig. Is that straight? The white man gives us a shilling for a basket of potatoes, but to the Pakeha he gives four shilling for a basket like that one of ours. Is that straight? No, no, they will not listen to thee, so go back, go back. If they would listen and obey, ah, yes, good that, but have they ever listened to Busby? Will they listen to you, a stranger, a man of yesteryear? Remain indeed! For what? Wilt thou make dealing straight?
PUMUKA (Page 135)
The next speaker was Pumuka, a man of influence in the Roroa tribe, “Stay, remain, Governor; remain for me. Hear all of you. I will have this man a foster-father for me. Stay, sit thou here, Governor. Listen to my words, O Governor. Do not go away; remain. Stay, Governor, stay. I wish to have two fathers – thou and Busby and the missionaries”.
WARERAHI (Page 135)
Warerahi, chief of the Ngati Tawake, then spoke. “Yes, what else? Stay, sit, if not what else? Stay, if not how? Is it not good to be at peace? We will have this man as our Governor. What? Turn him away! Say to this man of the Queen, ‘Go back’? No, no”.
The next speaker was Hahiro of the Ngati Rehia tribe. “To thee, O Governor this. Who says remain? Who? Hear me, O Governor! I say no, no. Stay indeed! Who says stay? Go back, go back. Do not thou sit here. What wilt thou stay here for? We are not thy people. We are free. We will not have a Governor. Return, return, leave us. The missionaries and Busby are our fathers. We do not want thee, so go back, return, depart”.
TAREHA (Page 137)
Tareha, a great chief of the Nga Puhi, then spoke. “No Governor for me - for us native men. We, we only are the chiefs – the rulers. We will not be ruled over. What! Thou a foreigner up, and I down. Thou high, and I, Tareha, the great chief of the Nga Puhi tribes low! No, no, never, never. I am jealous of thee; I am, and shall be until thou and thy ship go away. Go back, go back, thou shall not stay here. No, no, I will never say yes. Stay! Alas! What for? Why? What is there here for thee? Our lands are already gone. Yes, it is so, but our names remain. Never mind, what of that – the lands of our father alienated. Dost thou think we are poor, indigent, poverty stricken – that we really need thy foreign garments, thy food. Look at this”. Tareha holds up a handful of fern root. “See, this is my food, the food of my ancestors, the food of the native people. Pshaw! Governor, to think of tempting men – us natives – with baits of clothing and food! Yes, I say, we are the chiefs. If all were to be alike, all equal in rank with thee – but thou the Governor up high – up, up, up, as this tall canoe paddle, and I Tareha, down, under, beneath! No, no, no. I will never say yes. I will never say stay. Go back return! Make haste away. Let me see you (all) go; thee and thy ship. Go, go, return, return”.
HONE HEKE (Page 139)
The next speaker was Hone Heke, the nephew and son-in-law of Hongi Hika, and admittedly one of the most influential men, both by lineage and achievement, in the north. The mana of Heke was the greatest. “To raise up or to bring down? To raise up or to bring down? Which? Who knows? Remain Governor, remain. If thou shouldst return we natives are gone, utterly gone, nothinged, extinct. What then shall we do? Who are we? Remain Governor, a father for us. If thou goest away, what then? We do not know. This my friends is a good thing. It is even as the word of God. Thou to go away! No, no, no! For then the French people or the rum sellers will have us natives. Remain, remain, stay with thou here; you with the missionaries all as one. But we the natives are children. Yes, it is not for us, but for you, our fathers – you missionaries - it is for you to say, to decide what it shall be. It is for you to choose, for we are only natives. Who and what are we? Children, yes, children solely. You, our fathers – you missionaries. Remain, I say, Governor, remain. A father, a Governor for us”. .
Tamati Waaka Nene the Nga Puhi chief of Hokianga spoke. “I will first speak to us, to ourselves, the natives. What do you say? The Governor to return? What then shall we do? Say here to me, O ye chiefs of the tribes of the northern part of New Zealand, how are we hence fore to act? Friends! Whose potatoes do we eat? Whose were our blankets? These spears (holding up his taiaha) are laid aside. What has the Nga Puhi now? The Pakeha gun, his shot, his powder. Many months has he been in our whares; many of his children are our children. Is not the land already gone? Is it not covered, all covered with men, with strangers, foreigners – even as grass and herbage – over whom we have no power? We the chiefs and natives of this land are down low: they are up high, exalted, yet they make no slaves. What do you say? The Governor to go back? I am sick, I am dead, killed by you. Had you spoken thus in the olden time, when the traders and grog sellers came – had you turned them away, then you could well say to the Governor, ‘Go back and it would have been correct, straight, and I also would have said with you, ‘Go back’- yes, we together as one man, as one voice. But now as things are, no, no, no. What did we do before the Pakeha came? We fought, we fought continuously. But now we can plant our ground, and the Pakeha will bring plenty of trade to our shores. Then let us keep him here. Let us all, be friends together. I am walking beside the Pakeha. I’ll sign the Tiriti O Waiatngi”. He then turned to the Governor. “O Governor remain. I, Tamati Waaka, say to you, remain. Do not thou go away from us; remain for us a father, a judge, a peacemaker. You must not allow us to become slaves. You must preserve our customs, and never permit our lands to be wrestled from us. Yes, it is good it is straight. Stay thou here, dwell in our midst. Remain, do not go away. Do not thou listen to what the chiefs of Nga Puhi say. Stay then, our friend, our father, our Governor.
PATUONE (Page 145)
Nene was followed by his elder brother Patuone of Ngati Hao. “What will I say on this great occasion, in the presence of all these great chiefs of both countries. Here then this is my word to thee, O Governor! Stay, stay – thou and the missionaries, and the word of God. Remain here with us to be our father to us, that the French have us not, that Bishop Pompallier, that bad man, have us not. Remain, O Governor, stay, stay, our friend”.
TE KEMARA (Page 146)
Te Kemara, who had been the first speaker and had patiently, heard out Heke, Nene and Patuone, but unable to restrain him self, jumped up in his lively and breezy manner, proceeded to counter the flow of the pro-British oratory. “No, no, who say stay, Go away, return to thine own land. I want my lands returned to me. If thou wilt stay, ‘return to that man, Tekemara, his land, then it will be good. Let us be all alike. Then O Governor, remain. But the Governor up, Tekemara down, low, flat! No, no, no. Besides, where art thou to stay, to dwell? There is no place left for thee”. Leaping forward, he seized hold of Hobson hands and shook them heartily, grinning gleefully, while shouting in his best English, “How d’ye do, eh Governor. How d’ye do, eh Mr. Governor”. Which he repeated over and over. This occasioned amongst the native a general expression of applause, and a louder cheer from the Europeans, in which the natives joined. This ended the meeting at 4-00 o’clock in the afternoon.
As can be seen from the comments from the chiefs, some had a good understanding of what the Treaty meant but others were afraid the British would steal their land and make them slaves. They all understood they were going to be under the control of the British Government and that the country was to be ceded to Britain. While some did not want this to happen, they could all see there was now no other alternative. The chiefs who had taken on the Catholic religion and in closes contact with the French or the ill-disposed Europeans, were the chiefs most opposed to the Treaty. They had been brainwashed into believing they would become slaves to the British if they signed the Treaty.
After the meeting ended, the Chiefs and their followers then moved to the area where the Te Tii Marae stands today and discussed the Treaty with the missionaries late into the night.

As the Rev Henry Williams recalls, “There was considerable excitement amongst the people, greatly increased by the irritating language of the ill-disposed Europeans, stating to the chiefs in the most insulting language, that their country was gone, and they now were only taurekareka (slaves). Many came to us to speak upon this new state of affairs. We gave them but one version, explaining clause by clause, showing the advantages of to them of being taken under the fostering care of the British Government, by which act they would become one people with the British, in suppression of wars, and of every lawless act, under one Sovereignty, and one law, human and divine”.
The meeting was to convene on the 7th February, but the Chiefs could not wait that long as they now felt it was to their advantage to sign the Treaty as soon as possible. The good impression created by Heke and Nene therefore stood, and before the evening had closed, there were a large number of chiefs anxious to sign the Treaty. Hobson was summonsed on the morning of the 6th February 1840 to accept the signatures of those chiefs who were willing and ready to sign.
The Tiriti O Waitangi was again read to the gathering and signing commenced. Governor Hobson, who had apparently recovered from his recent illness, appeared to be in the cheeriest of spirits, and as each chief signed the Treaty he shook him by the hand, and repeated in Maori,
“He iwi tahi tahou” - “We are now one people”.

The treaty

Hobson's proclamation

The Kemp Purchase