A GREAT SUMMARYThis is the first really big decade.

The TREATY in the 1860s

The Taranaki Land Grab
From Puke Ariki site

From Puke Ariki site
Assessment Schedule from exam

For the activity below follow the instructions on screen after opening the document below
Interactive online presentation

Te Ahi Kā Roa, Te Ahi Kātoro Taranaki War 1860–2010

Our Legacy — Our Challenge

external image WAR_WEB290.jpg17 March 2010 – 1 August 2010

Taranaki War tells the story that began in March 1860 when the first shots were fired in a series of wars that raged through the region on and off for 21 years. At stake was ownership of the land which would determine the destinies of both Māori and Pākehā.

Today — 150 years later — the war that shaped Taranaki appears every bit as shocking as any 21st century news bulletin. This enthralling exhibition describes in detail the invasion, bombing, civilian casualties, siege and attempted ethnic cleansing that took place and extends the discussion from historic events to contemporary issues that are the legacy of war.

While the stories told in the exhibition are embedded in Taranaki’s history, they are not exclusive to the region. Their close examination helps us to better understand who all New Zealanders are, where they have been in their history and where they might be heading.

external image A95_506_detail_290.jpgTaranaki War was the final part of Puke Ariki’s five-exhibition Common Ground series designed to build background history and explore the Taranaki wars themselves. Takapou Whāriki explored family history and identity; Taranaki Whenua looked at issues surrounding land; Taranaki Culture celebrated the region’s creativity and Taranaki Fortunes dealt with matters of regional economy. The exhibition revisited all these topics of family, land, culture and economy in the light of the devastating effects of Taranaki war.

The exhibition, however, was not locked into past events. There are plenty of historic and contemporary images and objects, mainly from Puke Ariki’s heritage collection, and several key items from other New Zealand institutions, alongside cutting-edge technology that deposits history firmly in the present. The tales of dodgy deals and dirty tactics, heroes and villains, friends and foes, despair, protest and hope may be old ones, but the themes all ring true today. The horror of 19th century war and its long-term effects are thought-provokingly real.

Visitors to the exhibition were prepared not only to learn but to have their own on-the-spot say on relevant issues by making use of the opportunities provided.

This is War

The first section of the exhibition introduced some of the people and events important in the build-up to war and traces the struggles of both Māori and Pākehā as each asserted their claims to Taranaki land. Paintings, photographs, collection objects and first-hand impressions bring to dramatic life the First Taranaki War, the Second Taranaki War, the South Taranaki Wars and the events of Parihaka.

The War’s long legacy

At the heart of the exhibition is a no-punches-pulled examination of the ongoing legacy of war in the region. Here, memorials to Taranaki war in stone and in street signs, in official war photographs, artefacts and commemoration events are exhibited as potent, contemporary reminders of history. Past and present legislation is discussed along with issues surrounding comparative wealth, physical and mental health, language and learning.

Where to from here?

Taranaki War was not just an exhibition to be seen and appreciated. It is also an exhibition to be thought about, discussed and thought about some more. In the last section, visitors were invited to have a say in the ongoing conversation about the events and issues that surround war in Taranaki.

external image haveyoursay_mainpage.jpg
Read the comments made by the visitors to Taranaki War about the issues raised in the exhibition.
**Post your Own comments** about the future of your country.
See the Comment Wall Gallery and read the comments people are making.


Topic Two: Essay Three 2007

Explain the factors that contributed to the decision made by Governor Thomas Gore Browne to pursue the purchase of the Waitara block in 1860.
Evaluate the consequences of this decision on race relations in Taranaki up to 1863

The candidate’s response to the first part of the essay question could include:
· In the period after the initial Pākehā settlement of New Plymouth, several blocks of land had been purchased from Taranaki and Te Ati Awa hapū. Most of this land was inland and covered in bush. Pākehā settlers were eager to acquire the more fertile land around the Waitara River, which flowed into a river mouth harbour. New Plymouth lacked a decent harbour.
· The settlers were jealous that 4000 Māori in Taranaki owned 800 000 hectares while the original New Zealand Company purchase for New Plymouth was just 1400 hectares.
· In one of his dispatches, Gore Browne alleged that Māori had far more land than they needed and that the settlers would get hold of it “recte si possint, si non quocunque modo” (“fairly, if possible, if not, then by any means at all”).
· The establishing of Kingitanga in 1858 was viewed by most Pākehā as a land-holding movement. This was a time when the populations of Auckland and New Plymouth were increasing. Governor Thomas Gore Browne believed that Māori needed to be taught a “sharp lesson”.
· Governor Gore Browne believed the rumours that Māori who wanted to sell land were being intimidated by a pupuri whenua land league. In 1859, he had announced that any Māori wanting to sell land were able to do so without the consent of their chiefs. (This was a direct breach of Article Two of the Treaty, which affirmed chiefly authority.)
· Governor Gore Browne saw the dispute over the sale of the Waitara block as an issue of sovereignty. When Te Teira offered the land for sale, the paramount chief of the area, Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake, objected. He argued that Te Teira didn’t have the mana or support needed to make the sale.

The candidate’s response to the second part of essay question could include
· When the survey began, Wiremu Kingi’s supporters disrupted it by pulling out the survey pegs.
· In February, Governor Gore Browne declared martial law and troops were sent in from New Plymouth. Waitara was occupied by troops, and Kingi’s pa Te Kohia was bombarded. The Te Ati Awa garrison abandoned the pa with little loss.
· Wiremu Kingi had not initially supported the establishment of Kingitanga, but he now sought an alliance with Te Wherowhero. Kingitanga sent a force of volunteers to support Kingi in Taranaki. This was significant as it showed that Kingitanga would support Māori landholders in their disputes against the British. (Governor Grey later used Kingitanga’s involvement in the Taranaki War as part of his excuse to invade the Waikato).
· On 27 June 1860, Te Ati Awa and their allies inflicted some heavy losses on British troops at the twin pa of Puketakauere and Onukukaitara near Waitara. On 6 November the British troops gained their first success when they drove Ngāti Haua and Waikato from their defences at Mahoetahi.
· In July 1860, Governor Gore Browne convened the Kohimarama Conference, at which he attempted to undermine Wiremu Kingi and the Kingitanga (neither Kingi nor Te Wherowhero were invited) by having other North Island chiefs reaffirm aspects of the Treaty of Waitangi.
· For almost three months, early in 1861, General Pratt led more than 2000 men on an advance by the means of a sap (trench) and a series of redoubts against Māori occupying pa and rifle pits at the bush edge on the bank of the Waitara River.
· The conflict remained unresolved as neither side was strong enough to defeat the other, and a ceasefire was agreed in March 1861. Māori continued to control the Tataraimaka block but lost control of some of the land around Waitara.
· When Governor Grey reoccupied the Tataraimaka block before giving up land at Waitara, there were further incidents around New Plymouth.
· Tension continued in the late 1860s with the rise of the Pai Marire prophetic movement.

If we overview the decade first what we do in class will supplement the detail on the site.


Competition between Maori and Pakeha began to develop on the basis of:
Who Owned The Land
The Victorian market for produce collapsed. Pakeha farmers were in a stronger position because they owned their farms by individual tenure, were better able to use technical innovations, had access to credit and were able to switch to pastoralism. Maori farmers were hit hard. No tribe was free of debt; shop-keepers charged exorbitant interest rates.
When the Maori were in the majority, British law was effective only in the main centres. But by 1858 the settlers were outnumbering the Maori. A demand arose to have Maori chiefs stripped of their power. The British wanted to demonstrate that they held substantive sovereignty over New Zealand.
Land Sales
Ownership of land defined areas of control. Selling the land meant transferring power and authority. Many Maori were eager to sell land. They wanted better access to skills, goods, markets and employment. Others wanted to demonstrate the legitimacy of their claim to disputed land.
This movement, taking shape in 1857-8, was the first attempt at a Maori national movement. The first King, an aged Waikato chief, became Potatau I.
I. It did not unite all Maori. Though predominantly a Waikato movement, even in the Waikato support was not unanimous.
2. It meant different things to different members. To some it was a way of coping with increasing disputes over land sales by transferring all land to the King. To others, it was a source of mana, to exist side by side with that of Queen Victoria.
3. It was an effort to consolidate a sense of Maoriness.
To keep a distinct territory from Mangatawhiri River to the interior Waikato. Chiefs were to place their land under the King's mana. Pakeha were not excluded but had to accept the King's authority and Maori law. The three basic principles were Te Whakapono, Te Aroha, Te Ture (Christianity, Love, Law).
Pakeha Reaction
To the Pakeha, for whom two rival sovereignties was not possible, the King Movement was potentially hostile. It ended the gradual and peaceful erosion of Maori authority.
1. The fertile Waitara of the Atiawa was desired by New Plymouth settlers. They were pressing for the confiscation of all 'waste land'.
2. In 1848 Wiremu Kingi actively opposed the sale of any more land. Kingi's followers resisted land sales vigorously.
3. Other hapu leaders resented Kingi's assumption of leadership. Teira {Taylor) offered to sell land to Gore Browne, the Governor, in defiance of Kingi.
4. Gore Browne accepted Teira's offer, maintaining that no chief had the right to say whether land should be sold or not unless he was a part-owner. Kingi was in fact a part-owner. Gore Browne did not want to recognise Kingi's authority. In his view, the Queen's sovereignty needed to be asserted.
5. King's men obstructed the surveyors. Martial law was declared.
The two sides
The war aims for the British were a swift decisive victory to demonstrate British power and superiority (sovereignty).
For Maori the aim was defensive-to preserve what they already had.
The British force began with 800 soldiers, later increasing to 3500 men. Maori never fielded more than 700-800 part-time warriors with no artillery.
The Fighting
The British found it difficult to engage in large-scale battles where they had the advantage. Fighting took place at Waireka, Mahoetahi, Matarikoriko and Puketakauere. British success was extremely limited. The military command (Colonel Gold) was blamed. The effective Maori strategy was to abandon a pa when it had served its purpose. They operated a well co-ordinated shift system; kept men supplied with food; continued trade in Auckland to maintain supplies.
Ceasefire: Fighting ended on 18 March 1861 after Wiremu Tamehana intervened. Public support for war was falling away. Several prominent Pakeha criticised Gore Browne. Doubts about the justice of the Waitara purchase emerged. Immigration was being ad- versely affected. The British Government was not enthusiastic about continuing to bear the cost. Gore Browne was replaced by Sir George Grey (his second Term).
The Waitara purchase was to be investigated. The economy of Taranaki was crippled. Though the Maori had achieved their defensive aim their economic resources were devastated.
Grey's Peace Policy: Grey set up runanga or new institutions to give the chiefs local administrative powers. When the Maori chiefs did not use it to sell land it lost its appeal. Grey also tried flattery and gifts, his 'flour and sugar' policy , but pensions and gifts could not solve the problems of a declining population, social disruption and poverty .
War Policy: At the same time Grey prepared for war. He was uneasy about the formidable, independent, central tribes. The limited support the King Movement had given to the Taranaki war had demonstrated its military muscle. He built roads into the Waikato and planned for gunboats on the Waikato River. He kept the troops from the Taranaki War, supplementing them with an extra 3000 men.
Events Leading to War
I. Grey decided the Waitara should be returned to its Maori owners. First he occupied the Tataraimaka block which had been seized by Taranaki tribes. The angry Atiawa unsuccessfully ambushed government troops at Oakura. The Waitara was officially returned in May 1863.
2. Grey blamed the Kingites for the Oakura ambush. He also claimed they had a plot to invade Auckland. On II July 1863 he ordered the invasion of Waikato.
Causes of Conflict in the Waikato
1. The long-term cause was the basic antagonism of Maori and Pakeha. The settlers and even the missionaries welcomed war. They wanted to subjugate Maori nationalism. Their argument was that the 'rule of Pakeha law should prevail'.
2. Grey, like Gore Browne, wanted to establish British authority more effectively. Grey saw the Oakura ambush as a rejection of British authority.
3. The settlers and financiers coveted the rich lands of the Waikato.
The Opposing Armies
1. The British Force: In 1864 Grey had 14000 men. Of these, 4000 were colonial forces, 9000 were Imperial soldiers, a few hundred were pro-British Queenites (Arawa). Total mobilisation is estimated at 18 000 men. They were commanded by Lieutenant- General Cameron. It was one of the best prepared and organised British campaigns.
2. The Maori Force: With limited written evidence estimates of their strength have varied greatly. Cycles of concentration and dispersal were characteristic. On three occasions forces of 1000-2000 men assembled for up to three months. Total Maori mobilisation is estimated as 4000 warriors. This would only have been possible with a high degree of co-operative action. Leaders were Rewi Maniapoto of Ngati Maniapoto, Wiremu Tamehana of Nl{atihaua, and Tikaokao of Ngati Maniapoto.
On 9 July 1864, Grey issued a Proclamation calling on all Maori living north of the Mangatawhiri river to take the oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria or retire beyond the river. Those who resisted were liable to have land confiscated. This did not reach the Waikato until after Cameron's troops had crossed the Mangatawhiri.
The Fighting
The Maori force used guerilla tactics, killing settlers in outlying districts, and attacking communication lines. Cameron had to tie up three-quarters of his men in protecting communications. The Maori aim was to block Pakeha progress into the Waikato.
Meremere: A Maori force of about 1500 men constructed a pa and held up the British advance for 14 weeks, then dispersed.
Rangiriri: Its capture opened up the Waikato.
Ngaruawahia: was occupied by the British on 9 December. Cameron offered terms which were rejected.
Paterangi: was by-passed by a brilliant British manoeuvre. This allowed Cameron into the heartland of the Waikato. Rangiaowhai was burned and sacked.
Orakau: Rewi Maniapoto, forced into a defensive stand on a un- suitable site, resisted five assaults before attempting an audacious breakout.
End of Waikato War
Cameron decided against advancing further into the rugged hill country of the Ngati Maniapoto. War came to an indecisive end in 1864.
A small British defensive force had been stationed at Camp Te Papa since 1864. The Ngai Te Rangi were neutral but had supplied the Waikato with soldiers and provisions. Rawiri Puhirake, fearing a British attack, decided to go on the offensive. This bold and impudent leader, deliberately challenged British authority.
Cameron Attacks
The challenge was welcomed as a chance for a decisive victory and a blow at Maori power. Cameron had 1700 men and powerful artillery. The Ngai Te Rangi had 200 warriors. But in a brilliant military manoeuvre the small Maori force decimated the much larger British force. A later victory at Te Ranga allowed the British to salvage some of their pride. The Ngai Te Rangi were able to negotiate moderate peace terms.
For Maori
No one single battle was decisive but the cumulative effect was very destructive of Maori society and power. About 500 Kingite warriors were killed or wounded. The economy was strained, trade with Europeans stopped, the people demoralised by the loss of homes, land and constant retreat. People who fled south from the confiscated fertile lands had to eke out a living from rugged hill country. But the King Movement, though battered and weakened, was intact. It remained behind the autaki (frontier). Maori authority hung on.
For the British
Success was very limited. Both the Colonial Ministry and Grey felt that further operations were necessary to win the war. But Cameron refused. Britain had conquered less than one-third of the territory of the Waikato tribes.
The Waikato Wars from Te Ara
A good starting point
Waikato Wars from NZ History net
This gives a straight forward overview with suggested links
Danny Keenan's War site
This is very readable
Papers Past on the Waikato Wars
Papers Past are digitised newspapers from the time period
Primary resources but ........
The Governor - Waikato Wars
This is an episode from a drama series made in the 1970s about Governor Grey. This episode is on the Waikato Wars and is good to get the feel of the period


This is a PDF file of our trip down to Te Awamutu

The Waikato Wars
This is a really good site not the least of which because they use my CCC system of analysis!

Land Confiscation
The intention was to punish rebels, to use the land to pay the soldiers and stabilise the frontier. Disputes between Grey and the ministers about the extent of confiscation was a debate over the rights of the Governor and the powers of the responsible ministry.
New Zealand Settlement Act 1863
The 3.5 million acres seized under this Act was less than the grand scheme of the Domett Ministry and more than Grey's limited plan. The Ngati Maniapoto did not lose land. The most heavily affected tribes and areas were:
1. The kupapa of the Waikato, who lost their most fertile lands.
2. The Taranaki tribes.
3. The Tauranga area.
4. The Eastern Bay of Plenty-Opotiki area.
Of the 3.5 million acres, about half was either paid for or returned. Only 1.6 million acres was occupied. Government hopes to sell confiscated land for high prices were disappointed. Similarly, the military settlements on the Waikato frontier were a failure. Settlers were easily enticed away by gold or better prospects.

The injustices of confiscation caused new hostilities.
I. Pai Marire: A new religion, founded by Te Ua Haumene, became the focus for resistance to Pakeha domination. It spread rapidly after 1864. The peaceful intentions of the prophet were overwhelmed when his followers were embroiled in local and personal issues.
2. South Taranaki War: In 1864, fighting broke out in the Taranaki - Wanganui region. Three thousand British troops devastated South Taranaki.
3. Ngati Kahungunu and Ngati Porou: Between Tune 1865 and October 1866 a series of conflicts , like a civil war, took place. Traditional chiefs felt threatened by the new religion, or felt they could use the new religion to increase their power. British troops had been withdrawn. Expeditions by Colonial troops and kupapa forces were undertaken to punish offenders such as the Maori executioners of Rev Volkner who had spied for British forces. Their efforts were not always successful. Their aims were not necessarily the same. Many Maori hapu stayed independent.
4. Te Kooti: Accused of spying and deported without trial to Chathams, founded a new religion (Ringatu), organised a spectacular escape, and with his followers set out to seekrevenge. When the government retaliated he launched a series of raids in Poverty Bay and Whakatane. The war against him was fought by local militia and kupapa.
5. Titokowaru: An outstanding military strategist and religious leader of south Taranaki. When colonists began to settle in confiscated land, the Ngati Ruanui faced either resistance or starvation. Their initial passive resistance provoked attack from the Colonial forces. Titokowaru and 80 warriors were outnumbered 12 to I, but his raids, ambushes and two brilliant victories at Te Ngutu o Te Manu and Moturoa left Colonial troops in confusion and disarray. Then suddenly his men deserted him. South Taranaki resistance collapsed.
The King Movement
The border was very tense. The Kingites expelled traders and a mission teacher in 1871. But government policy was to maintain open and friendly communications. For 20 years the border was armed but not hostile. Tensions eased. The Pakeha economy had many attractions for the Maori. Maori leaders also desired peace but the biggest barrier was the confiscated lands. Tawhaio, the second Maori King, made frequent calls for peace.
Its aim was to change the traditional communal land-holding tenure of Maori society into European individual land titles. It showed the determination of both government and Pakeha settlers to gain control of Maori land.
The Procedure
1. Maori land could become security for debt. When Europeans forced Maori owners into court to settle debts, other members of the tribe would be obliged to defend their interest. The European would gain the leasehold or freehold of the land.

2. Rightful owners could not avoid going to court. There was no indication of when a hearing would come up. Owners had to leave their holdings to live in distant towns. All were impoverished.

3. It affected Maori lives more than any other Pakeha institution. Evidence was in Maori. The kaumatua illustrated their claims with chant and genealogy. For the first time all this oral history was written down.

4. Procedure was complex and worked to the buyer's advantage:

5. Many judges were not necessarily sympathetic or knowledgeable about Maori custom. Inheritance, hunting and gathering rights were often ignored or misunderstood. Judges applied the 'winner takes all' decision.

6. The law favoured the speculator and purchaser .

Response of the King Movement
Tawhiao was hostile to the Native Land Court. But the Ngati Maniapoto broke with him over boycotting the Court. Individual dealings with agents and government wore down opposition. His position was also weakened by the Court decision that his people had no right to land occupied after 1840.
Effect of the Native Land Court
I. Responsibility and trust within tribes broke down as land buyers manipulated the members.
2. Old rivalries were fought out in a new arena.
3. European pastoralists benefited. Some big buyers in Matamata and the Hawkes Bay amassed land. Even government and politicians participated in the scramble for land.
4. Individual land titles were rarely achieved for Maori owners.
Effects on the Maori
I. The greater part of New Zealand was bought by the Crown or white settlers, often for low prices. By 1892 the 4 million hectares of land left in Maori ownership was mostly in remote, bush- covered, rugged North Island areas. Of this nearly 100 hectares was leased by Europeans.
2. Also lost was the forest for hunting and swamps for eels. Fishing spots and shellfish beds were ruined by damning and harbour reclamation's. Compensation was often avoided.
3. The reserves left in Maori hands were plagued with problems. Small farms were uneconomic.
Social Consequences
I. The authority of the chiefs was undermined.

2. There was a breakdown of trust in hapu and iwi.

3. Village life was disrupted by prolonged court attendance.

4. Disease spread rapidly.

5. Maori confidence in Pakeha law was undermined.

6. Maori people felt lost and bewildered at the rapid breakdown of the social structure.

7. The flush of wealth from land sales was temporary .The long- term effects were indebtedness and confinement to shrinking reserves. Maori lived on small subsistence farms, with seasonal work from shearing or government road contracts.