Activity for October 16

LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Learn how to access the 3 wikispaces to help with revision

2. Learn how to edit your page, link to a website and upload

3. Complete the research on the 1880s Depression

4. Write the essay introduction as below


These are Depressing questions

Essay question 2010
Describe the changes that occurred in New Zealand’s economy and society during the Long Depression of the 1880s and 1890s.
Evaluate the extent to which different Governments successfully dealt with these changes up to 1900.

Essay question 2007
Describe the changes that occurred in the New Zealand economy in the 1880s that created the “Long Depression”.
Evaluate the impact of these economic changes on New Zealand society and politics.

These are slightly different questions but because I am keen to help you go about revising, I want you to do the following:

1. Access both Assessment Schedules and paste them into your page on http://13ppehistory.wikispaces.com
The assessment schedules are on the revision wiki and this one. Best to go to file and open a new tab if you are flicking between websites

2. Use the Assessment Schedules and decide on ONE of the questions. Blend the material into bullet points under headings that are signalled by the question. You might need to find a way to do that. Remember I am told that you are the digital natives.
I should not need to tell you, but where else can you go to find out about the ideas for the second barrel of this essay?

3. Write an Introduction to your chosen essay and get it to me by saving it in your page or by sending it to me by email. I am wriitng your reports at the moment so will be in front of the computer

4. Please read the SOCIO-ECONOMIC FORCES piece below. KIt is really on the money. I gave it out yesterday and have digitised it.

Intro: The issue of the Long Depression and the impact on New Zealand politics and the economy

The Long Depression, 1879-1895, was a time of economic and political instability in New Zealand. Much of society suffered as a result of falling export prices and the reduction of credit. Politically the Long Depression contributed to a change in New Zealand’s style of governing with the election of the Liberal party to power in 1891. Economically the depression highlighted the continual problems of dependency facing New Zealand’s economy. Fortunately the period also coincided with a change to a more sustainable economy based on the development of the protein industry. The influence of the Long Depression on New Zealanders was reflected in some of the social concerns that emerged at the time including, unemployment, swaggers and the decrease in net migration.

Essay Plan:

Description of issue:
  • Falling export prices from late 1870s eg. wheat, wool

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Continuity:


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Change:


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Influence on people/groups:
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Some notes on the depression

Economics shapes Politics
The depression of the 1880’s:

Causes:
  • Fall in prices for wool and wheat.
  • Fall in productivity- erosion, (over farming, rabbits)
  • End of Gold
  • End of borrowing
  • City of Glasgow bank went bankrupt in 1878.
  • Later in N island because of Maori land- confiscations and Kupapa land being sold. Growth of Wellington and Auckland fuelled timber industry.

Characteristics
  • Politics- failed to address the problems. Hall’s govt. 1881-84 cut public spending…
  • Stout-Vogel 1884-87 focused on defence and pacific policy.
  • Depression worsened and spread north… mid 1880’s

Consequences/ indicators:

  • Unemployed, poverty.
  • Bankruptcy increase- BNZ became largest land owner because people forfeited on debt.
  • Huge public debt. Over 40 million pounds. In 1887.
  • Govt retrenchment- cut back on borrowing and spending. Raise taxes.
  • skilled workers laid off to be replaced with women and teenagers (cheaper), Pastoralist halted development and employment, reduced wages.
  • 1000’s unemployed- transients
  • Net loss of pop. Many left for Victoria.
  • Poor relied on charity- no govt. assistance. Local councils cut back on spending of public works.

Depression split the country:

Provincial interests no longer divided people- NZ more a “nation”. Sinclair argued the depression created two national ‘class divisions between urban/ labour VS rural interests. Also between land monopolists and the “small man”. Thus the 1891 election was about the national issues of privilege and equality.

Wealthy farmers and run holders wanted govt to slash expenditure.

VS settlers and small farmers wanted govt. help. –

They had some ideas about the form that Govt. help could take:

  • Wanted more roads, rail.
  • Wanted More Maori land to become available.
  • Thought Pastorialism controlled too much land and weren’t developing it.
  • Wanted Freight rates cut.
  • Gold miners wanted subsidies for dredge sludge channels.

Small business wanted tariffs for protection. – Which could generate employment, raise wages, develop industry, and provide the govt. with a source of revenue. Resisted by merchants, farmers and run holders.

Protection leagues were formed, although lost support as a political movt by Atkinson’s modest tariff in 1888.

Consequences:


In 1888/9 a series of new issues, ideas and organisations flourished:

  • Land: Land Nationalisation League against monopoly of land by a few wealthy.
  • Bank: Support for a state bank grew.
  • Working conditions:
  • “Early Closing Association” to limit shop opening hours.
  • Temperance Movement had formed the NZ Alliance in 1886.
  • Votes for women – Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  • Spread of socialist ideas.

Idea that Govt. could and should solve social problems. People wanted to mould NZ and make it an “improved Britain”

-Role of Unions…maritime strike. Unions fought for better conditions for labour. (pay and limited working hours). Membership to Unions grew.

Sweating- An “evil” of the old world.
A commission of enquiry was set up to investigate and found some evidence of cramped and dangerous conditions in factories, especially textiles which employed many women and teens. The idea of “sweating” appalled people and led to support for the Liberal policies.

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC FORCES SHAPING POLITICS in the l88Os
The big question here is does the economy shape politics or can politics shape the economy?
The Long Depression gave rise to a number of socio-economic forces that presented issues successive governments were increasingly unable to resolve within the context of established politics. Thus, the period revealed that the government was no longer able to effectively shape the economy. Instead, the economy began to shape politics. These socio-economic forces included
NEW ZEALAND’S FINANCIAL OVER-COMMITMENT FOC
By the mid 1880s, New Zealand’s financial situation was grim. In the 1884 elections, voters responded enthusiastically to Vogel’s solution of further borrowing and public works but by 1887 this had dissipated. The government could no longer borrow readily overseas and, faced with a huge public debt, struggled to meet interest repayments. In 1887 the public debt totalled £40.6 million. New Zealand’s reputation overseas plunged amid fears that it may default on these obligations. In addition, private investors steadily withdrew from the country. Overall these experiences demonstrated that government borrowing was no longer a key to shaping the country’s economic future.
GOVERNMENT INABILITY TO STIMULATE THE ECONOMY GIS
During the 1880s. successive governments made a variety of different attempts to improve the economy. Political direction was in the hands of the ‘Continuous Ministry’ - essentially much the same group of politicians who simply reshuffled under a different Premier after frequent votes of no-confidence in parliament. They tried increasing taxes, introducing retrenchment, raising tariffs against some imports, establishing charitable aid boards and work relief schemes and even further borrowing. All attempts were unsuccessful: clearly demonstrating the government’s inability to shape the economy.
A MARKED INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS DURING THE 1880s ISF
Small-scale farming - on holdings of 1-50 acres - was the major occupation in New Zealand by 1891. Conducted at a self-sufficiency level, it had a minimal impact on New Zealand’s export earnings. It was, however, an important political influence because its growth was linked to a strong social ideal that New Zealand was a country where industrious workers could achieve land ownership and ultimately make a living from their land. Attention had re­focused on this ideal during the immigration boom of the 1870s and New Zealanders looked to the government to facilitate it.
THE FACT THAT ESTABLISHED LARGE-SCALE FARMERS COULD PROSPER DURING THE 1880s LFP
The decade of the 1880s provided economic opportunities for those farmers who survived the speculative land boom of the 1870s and early 1880s. While prices for many of their products fell, so too did their costs; particularly labour costs. In addition, refrigeration held the promise of new economic directions. At the level of primary production, farmers like John Grigg could diversify to meet a British demand for prime mutton, whilst the secondary and tertiary levels of the industry offered investment opportunities in freezing works and the transport industry.
Thus, the 1880s was a period where large scale runholders could prosper, and they did; particularly in Canterbury. As a result. by the 1890s land monopoly had emerged as a public concern and a powerful influence shaping politics.

THE DIFFERENCES IN THE ECONOMIC FORTUNES OF THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH ISLANDS NSD
The 1880s saw a move away from the economic dominance the South Island had enjoyed since the 1860s. The former economic ‘stars’ of the south, Canterbury and Otago, were severely affected by the drop in wool prices and gold production. This was compounded by the collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank, a major lender in the south, and by the general restrictions on borrowing.
The North Island, for a varlety of reasons, fared much better than the South. Sustained by timber, quartz-gold and kauri gum exports that it traded with Australia rather than economically depressed Britain. Auckland avoided the depression until the collapse of its speculative property boom in the mid 188Os. By then, dairving was proving a prospect in another region of the North Island - Taranaki. Able at last to capitalise on its climate, the availability of land through the raupatu and the inmigrant settlers of the 1870s, Taranaki began to enjoy economic success with dairying in the 1880s – initially serving a local market, then branching out to become the nation’s largest exporter of butter by the early 1890s.
Overall, the economic opportunities in pastoralism that arose during the 1880s favoured the North Island since large-scale runholding and land monopoly were less of an issue there than in parts of the South Island. Thus, the 1880s saw the beginnings of the North Island’s re-emergence to economic dominance over the South Island. One indicator of this change was the distribution of parliamentary electorates.
ACTIVITY
THE DISTRIBUTION OF PARLIAMENTARY ELECTORATES
Selected Elections
NO. OF SEATS



N.Is
S.ls.
Maori
Total
1853
23
14

37
1861
29
24

53
1862
29
29

57
1866
29
41

70
1867
29
43
4
76
1871
30
34
4
78
1875
34
50
4
88
1881
36
55
4
95
1890
31
39
4
74
1896
34
36
4
74























Source:
New Zealand Parliamentary Record (ed.) G.H.Scholefield, Wellington. 1950, p.90
In W Mcintyre and W Gardner, Speeches and Documents on New Zealand History, London. 1971. p.469


Describe the trend these figures show in the political importance of the South Island relative to that of the North Island.
  • What economic factors lay behind the change in:
a) the position of the South Island;






b) the position of the North Island?






SOCIAL IDEALS SI = LA, FWC, MP
Most Pakeha New Zealanders shared a desire to avoid the ‘evils of the old world’ in their new homeland. In particular they wanted;
• land to be accessible to the ‘small man’ The distribution of land within the Pakeha economy emerged as an important influence on politics during the 1880s. The possibility of land ownership and a degree of self-sufficiency was a strong attraction for migrants. They specifically wanted to avoid a situation where land ownership was the domain of a few monopolists.
• fair working conditions Settlers wanted employment to be free of the exploitation associated with the European industrial system. This included practices like the employment of women and juveniles as cheap labour, low wages, long hours, dangerous and uncomfortable working conditions and ‘sweating’.
• modest prosperity A strong ideal for many migrants was to be able to look after themselves and their families. They did not want the institutions of poverty, such as poor relief systems, charitable aid boards and
industrial schools, to be necessary in their new society.

Given these ideals. the 1880s proved a sad disappointment for many citizens:
• Clear evidence of the abuse of labour emerged throughout the nation. This included children ‘employed’ as unpaid apprentices, 12 and 13 hour working days and the substitution of male workers for cheaper female and child labour. These abuses culminated in the revelation that ‘sweating’ existed in Dunedin factories in the late 1880s. SWEATING LABOUR ABUSE
• 1885 saw the establishment of the first charitable aid boards. Moreover, no fewer than one thousand children were in state care in industrial schools, either because their parents were too poor to keep them or because their fathers had left the family.
• Even settlers’ ideals about land were challenged. While property ownership was a reality for many, wealthy runholders and land monopolists were in evidence; particularly in Canterbury.



THE GROWTH OF URBAN INDUSTRIES AND AN URBAN WORKFORCE UI&WF
Economic conditions in the 1880s favoured the manufacturing sector. Cheap labour abounded and many of the migrants of the 1870s were skilled industrial workers. In addition, the population gains from migration enlarged the internal market for manufactured goods like shoes and clothing. Moreover, the higher risks and limited opportunities of the farming sector encouraged investors towards manufacturing as a new area of investment.
In order to develop and prosper, these new urban industries demanded certain things from the government including protective tariffs, subsidies and incentives.
Moreover, the growth in the manufacturing sector meant a permanent industrial workforce appeared in towns and cities which is associated with the emergence of a New Zealand working class. This urban workforce, in turn, sought government involvement and involvement in government in order to prevent industrial abuses; and later to help realise some of their ideals.

THE INTRODUCTION OF REFRIGERATION RT
Refrigeration presented a new economic direction for the pastoral industry. An export trade based on the sale of frozen meat and chilled butter and cheese became a possibility.
Investors, some of them wealthv farmers, quickly realised that this potential market required the processing industries of freezing works and dairy factories. Many undertook such ventures and began experimenting with the export of refrigerated products. In addition, attention focused on animal breeding to acquire the fat stock sought on the British meat markets and dairy animals yielding high butter fat.
Meeting this potential export market also placed another set of demands upon the nature of New Zealand’s economic activity. Intensive pastoralism offered a potential niche for small-scale farming and hope that the settler ideal of a country which supported the small man on the land’ could be realised. This would require some measure of government assistance.

TRADE UNIONISM TU
Trade unions had been in New Zealand since the 1860s, but barely existed during the depressed 1880s. However. revelations of industrial abuses during the later 1880s, culminating in the findings of the 1889 ‘Sweating Comrmssion. put a new face on the role and value of unions in New Zealand. They came to be seen by many as a means of checking such abuses and there was public support for the creation of some unions. The formation of the Tailoresses’ Union in Dunedin is one example and the unionisation of other industries spread rapidly.
These unions were concerned not only with industrial conditions but also with the wider issue of the opportunities the country offered to working people. In 1889 the major unions formed the Maritime Council which was determined

SUMMARY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FORCES




Resources on Parihaka
THE 1860-70 PAGE ON THE WIKI





Hi lovely people
This lesson is on PARIHAKA and is a different approach to the usual.

This is an excellent case study of a different type of Maori response t: war.

You have all been given a resource that pertains to Parihaka and what happened there

I want you to do the following:

1. Listen to the song by Tim Finn and herbs
2. Watch and jot down notes from PPT on screen
3. Find from this page the sources to tell the story of Parihaka using the following key words;
LAWS
CONFISCATION
REBELS
DISRUPTION
TE WHITI
TOHU
PAN TRIBAL
SURVEYS
PEGS
PLOUGHS
ARRESTS
PRISONS
ROADS
FENCES
LAWS
ARRESTS
BRYCE
1881 NOV 5
OCCUPATION
CHILDREN
TRIAL
INVASION
DUNEDIN
4. send me an email that tells the story of Parihaka.

PARIHAKA SONG TIM FINN AND HERBS
Parihaka Song lryics

My friend, my friend, Id like to see you suffer
Events conspire to bring us to our knees (dark)
My friend, my friend, you’ve taken this the wrong way
Rise up, defend yourself, never give in

Look to the sky, the spirit of Te Whiti
The endless time murdering his name
Tohu, Te Whiti will never be defeated
And even at the darkest hour their presence will remain

I’ll sing for you the song of Parihaka


Te Whiti, he used the language of the spirit
Then stood accused, a madman and his dream
They saw the train go roaring through the tunnel
They heard the voice travel on the magic wire
But they loved the silence of the river
They dreamed the dog pissed on the canon’s wheel
Tohu, Te Whiti, they’ll never be defeated
Not even at the darkest hour, their presence will remain

I’ll sing for you the song of Parihaka
One day you’ll know the truth
They can’t pull out the roots
So come and take me home
Before my last brother

They gather still, the clouds of Taranaki
Whose children’s children, wearing the white plume
So take me for the sins of these sad islands
The wave still breaks on rocky Rohotu
And when you taste the pepper on your pudding
And when you taste the sugar in your soup
Tohu, Te Whiti, they’ll never be defeated
And even at the darkest hour, their presence will remain

I’ll sing for you the song of Parihaka
Come to Parihaka, and weep for my lost brothers
Come to Parihaka, the spirit of non-violence
Has come to fill the silence
Come to Parihaka, we’ll never be defeated (x2)
Come to Parihaka, and weep for my lost brothers

(Tim Finn And Herbs, 1989)

Some legislation
1877
The Treaty is declared a nullity by Judge Prendergast in the Bishop of Wellington v Wi Parata case. Legislation was introduced to allow direct purchase of Maori land. This was another breach of Article 2,

1879
An amendment by Grey of the Native Land Act made it easier for small farmers to get Maori land. The Government sabotaged the Commission that was set up to investigate land confiscation in Taranaki.

1879
Peace Preservation Bill:
One year's hard labour for Maori people who refused to leave their abodes.
1880
Maori Prisoners' Act:
200 Maori arrested in Taranaki for preventing the surveying of confiscated land. Kept in prison for an indefinite period without trial.


1880
West Coast Settlement Act:
Any Maori in Taranaki could be arrested without a warrant and jailed for two years with hard labour if they built anything or in any way hindered the surveying or property.

1881
Native Reserves Act:
The control of Maori reserves is taken over by the Public Trustee.

1881
2500 troops invade Parihaka and Te Whiti the prophet is arrested.

1886
Native Lands Administration Act:
Rejected the traditional right of communal ownership. Maori land was given over to small groups of trustees who had the right under this act to sell it.

1886
Te Whiti was re-arrested (under the West Coast Preservation Act of 1881) without warrant, charge or trial and jailed for three months.

PARIHAKA LINKS
Puke Ariki pps









Te Ua Haumene

The story of Parihaka

This is the wikipedia version - very good



This is the report from the Waitangi Tribunal